[25][39] In East Anglia, King Æthelstan minted coins, possibly as early as 827, but more likely c. 830 after Ecgberht's influence was reduced with Wiglaf's return to power in Mercia. [37] It is significant that Wiglaf was still able to call together such a group of notables; the West Saxons, even if they were able to do so, held no such councils. In some cases a king will appear on a charter as a subregulus, or "subking", making it clear that he has an overlord. Support great long-form writing about British History, Culture and Travel by subscribing to the Anglotopia Print Magazine.. On the year of his death in 899 Alfred the Great was known only as Alfred, King of Wessex. King Penda was outraged and declared war on Wessex, defeating their forces in 645 CE and driving Cenwalh into exile. [25] It was after this victory that the West Saxon scribe described him as a bretwalda, meaning 'wide-ruler' or perhaps 'Britain-ruler', in a famous passage in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Alfred was forced to make peace, paying the Vikings to leave the Wessex territory. Ecgberht died in 839, and his will, according to the account of it found in the will of his grandson, Alfred the Great, left land only to male members of his family, so that the estates should not be lost to the royal house through marriage. [14][24] Ten years later, a charter dated 19 August 825 indicates that Ecgberht was campaigning in Dumnonia again; this may have been related to a battle recorded in the Chronicle at Gafulford in 823, between the men of Devon and the Britons of Cornwall. Wessex (/ ˈ w ɛ s ɪ k s /; Old English: Westseaxna rīċe [westsæɑksnɑ riːt͡ʃe], the 'Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in 927.. Egbert, King of Wessex (c769-839) son of Ealhmund of Kent, he was able to wrest control of both Wessex and Kent from the King of Mercia (c 790-839) and back to the royal family of Wessex. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs.Details for many of the later English monarchs are confirmed by a number of sources. In the 780s Ecgberht was forced into exile to Charlemagne's court in the Frankish Empire by Offa of Mercia and Beorhtric of Wessex, but on Beorhtric's death in 802 Ecgberht returned and took the throne. The early Engle restricted the use of runes to monuments, whereas the Saxons adopted wynn and thorn for sounds which did not have a Latin equivalent. But the earliest kings of Wessex predate many written sources. This first appears in a 10th-century manuscript copy of the "Anglian collection" of Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies. [4] Compared to the later texts, this pedigree gives an ancestry for Ceolwald as son of Cuthwulf son of Cuthwine which in the later 9th-century texts sometimes seems confused; and it states Cynric as son of Creoda son of Cerdic, whereas the Chronicle annals go to some length to present Cerdic and Cynric as a father-and-son pair who land in and conquer the southern part of Wessex together (a narrative now considered spurious by historians).[5]. ⁊ þy geare geeode Ecgbriht cing Myrcna rice ⁊ eall þæt be suþan Humbre wæs, ⁊ he wæs eahtaþa cing se ðe Bretenanwealda wæs. The relevant part of the annal reads, in the C manuscript of the Chronicle:[29]. The king spent a whole year in Rome and the journey to and fro was quite eventful. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a number of sources, the earlier ones are in many cases obscure. These distractions may have prevented Louis from supporting Ecgberht. Read more: The secrets King Edward VII doesn't want you to know Wessex, a prosperous land of scattered farmsteads and hamlets, seemed doomed to annihilation at the hand of marauding armies of piratical Vikings, heathen warriors that had already devastated Europe and laid waste to England's midland and northern kingdom. Wessex retained control of the south-eastern kingdoms, with the possible exception of Essex, and Mercia did not regain control of East Anglia. ( Public Domain ) In his absence, he gave the government of the kingdom to his eldest son Aethelbald. Barbara Yorke (1989), "The Jutes of Hampshire and Wight and the origins of Wessex" in S.R. [16][17] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Ecgberht spent three years in Francia before he was king, exiled by Beorhtric and Offa. These agreements, along with a later charter in which Æthelwulf confirmed church privileges, suggest that the church had recognised that Wessex was a new political power that must be dealt with. "[14] This may refer to Offa's interventions in Kent at the time Ecgberht's father Ealhmund became king; if so, the chronicler's remark may also indicate Ealhmund had connections elsewhere in southeast England. [18] In either case Ecgberht was probably exiled in 789, when Beorhtric, his rival, married the daughter of Offa of Mercia. Not listed in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, but held equivalent or greater power. [21] The Mercians continued to oppose Ecgberht: the day of his accession, the Hwicce (who had originally formed a separate kingdom, but by that time were part of Mercia) attacked, under the leadership of their ealdorman, Æthelmund.